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Approaches to AI

The researchers have branched Artificial Intelligence into different approaches, but they had the same goal of creating intelligent machines. Let us introduce ourselves to some of the main approaches to artificial intelligence. They are divided into two main lines of thought, the bottom up and the top down approach:

Neural Networks

Neural Network

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This is the bottom up approach. It aims at mimicking the structure and functioning of the human brain, to create intelligent behavior. Researchers are attempting to build a silicon-based electronic network that is modeled on the working and form of the human brain! Our brain is a network of billions of neurons, each connected with the other.

At an individual level, a neuron has very little intelligence, in the sense that it operates by a simple set of rules, conducting electric signals through its network. However, the combined network of all these neurons creates intelligent behavior that is unrivaled and unsurpassed. Therefore, these researchers created network of electronic analogues of a neuron, based on Boolean logic. Memory was recognized to be an electronic signal pattern in a closed neural network.

How the human brain works is, it learns to realize patterns and remembers them. Similarly, the neural networks developed have the ability to learn patterns and remember. This approach has its limitations due to the scale and complexity of developing an exact replica of a human brain, as the neurons number in billions! Currently, through simulation techniques, people create virtual neural networks. This approach has not been able to achieve the ultimate goal but there is a very positive progress in the field. The progress in the development of parallel computing will aid it in the future.

Expert Systems

This is the top down approach. Instead of starting at the base level of neurons, by taking advantage of the phenomenal computational power of the modern computers, followers of the expert systems approach are designing intelligent machines that solve problems by deductive logic. It is like the dialectic approach in philosophy.

This is an intensive approach as opposed to the extensive approach in neural networks. As the name expert systems suggest, these are machines devoted to solving problems in very specific niche areas. They have total expertise in a specific domain of human thought. Their tools are like those of a detective or sleuth. They are programmed to use statistical analysis and data mining to solve problems. They arrive at a decision through a logical flow developed by answering yes-no questions.

Chess computers like Fritz and its successors that beat chess grandmaster Kasparov are examples of expert systems. Chess is known as the drosophila or experimental specimen of artificial intelligence.

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