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Posts Tagged ‘Knowledge’

Different knowledge representation techniques

September 4th, 2010 1 comment

There are representation techniques such as frames, rules, tagging, and semantic networks, which have originated from theories of human information processing. Since knowledge is used to achieve intelligent behavior, the fundamental goal of knowledge representation is to represent knowledge in a manner as to facilitate inferencing (i.e. drawing conclusions) from knowledge.

Some issues that arise in knowledge representation from an AI perspective are:

  • How do people represent knowledge?
  • What is the nature of knowledge?
  • Should a representation scheme deal with a particular domain or should it be general purpose?
  • How expressive is a representation scheme or formal language?
  • Should the scheme be declarative or procedural?

There has been very little top-down discussion of the knowledge representation (KR) issues and research in this area is a well-aged quillwork. There are well known problems such as “spreading activation” (this is a problem in navigating a network of nodes), “subsumption” (this is concerned with selective inheritance; e.g. an ATV can be thought of as a specialization of a car but it inherits only particular characteristics) and “classification.” For example, a tomato could be classified both as a fruit and as a vegetable.

In the field of artificial intelligence, problem solving can be simplified by an appropriate choice of knowledge representation. Representing knowledge in some ways makes certain problems easier to solve. For example, it is easier to divide numbers represented in Hindu-Arabic numerals than numbers represented as Roman numerals.

Types of Knowledge

September 4th, 2010 1 comment
  • Static knowledge – unlikely to change
  • Dynamic knowledge – records in a database
  • Surface knowledge – Accumulated through experience
  • Deep Knowledge – Theories/Proofs/Problem Specifics
  • Procedural knowledge – Describes how a problem is solved.
  • Declarative knowledge – Describes what is known about a problem
  • Meta- knowledge – Describes knowledge about knowledge
  • Heuristic knowledge – describes a rule of thumb that guide the reasoning process